It produces bright, thistle like yellow flowers with sharp spines surrounding the base. Centaurea solstitialis university and jepson herbaria. The species name calcitrapa comes from the word caltrop, a type of weapon covered in sharp spikes. Yellow starthistle is an invasive plant that has been listed as a noxious. Cal ipc list of invasive nonnative plants that threaten wildlands in california cal ipc 2006. This guide begins with a description of the biology and ecology of yellow starthistle and. These fastgrowing, noxious pests are found in many lawns and gardens all over the. Yellow starthistle weed and invasive plant ecology and. Maltese star thistle, napa star thistle, tocalote cal ipc moderate cirsium occidentale var. Nov 16, 2011 that said, yellow starthistle can be handpulled at any time in its lifespan. Different types of thistle such as bull thistle, canada thistle, yellow star thistle, musk thistle and italian thistle are collectively called star thistle. Yellow starthistle is a grayishgreen plant with multiple stems that extend in all directions from the base, forming bushylooking clusters.
Observation search 25268 records plant characteristics. Yellow starthistle is a listed noxious weed and is invasive in many western states. Kiemnec yellow starthistle centaurea solstitialis l. The plant is also known as golden starthistle, yellow cockspur and st. Control pests by consistent implementation of ipm principles to protect and restore the natural environment and provide for human safety and enjoyment while visiting and working on district lands. They are covered with fine hairs and have hooks to encourage spread by contact with other animals. It is adapted to a wide range of soil conditions, and spreads vigorously by windborne seeds and by way of its extensive, creeping root system. The stems are rigid, winged, and covered with a cottony pubescence. Also resembles other thistles from the genus centaurea especially the iberian starthistle, centaurea iberica and can be easily confused for them. The less common purple star thistle grows up to four feet tall with dark brown stems and flowers varying from. For vascular plants occurring in wildlands or otherwise outside of cultivation in california, the jepson eflora contains taxonomic treatments, distribution maps, illustrations, photographs, and identification keys. The cal ipc defines invasive plants as plants that are not. In california, yellow starthistle centaurea solstitialis. Centaurea calcitrapa is a species of flowering plant known by several common names, including red starthistle and purple starthistle.
Yet, 63 percent of the species on the invasive plant list have been introduced intentionally for ornamental value, or for a specific purpose, such as soil stabilization, animal forage or wind breaks. It can grow up to five feet tall and produces bright yellow flowers with long, sharp spines. Eight 8 species of fauna were monitored andor treated in 2018. This memorandum presents the results of the 2019 invasive plant surveys in support of relicensing efforts for the bishop creek hydroelectric power project federal energy regulatory commission ferc. California invasive plant council calipc inventory. Ipcw plant report california invasive plant council. Invasive fauna species present in district preserves. Yellow starthistle is native to eurasia asia minor, the mid dle east and south central europe.
The goal of this project is to measure the impact of biological control agents on yellow starthistle, which contributes directly to objective 1 of the inhouse project. Malta star thistle centaurea melitensis malta star thistle is a winter annual or biennial forb in the sunflower family. For vascular plants occurring in wildlands or otherwise outside of cultivation in california, the jepson eflora contains taxonomic treatments, distribution maps, illustrations, photographs, and. Plants profile for centaurea solstitialis yellow star.
Additionally, yellow starthistle was found for the first time in the wawona area. Carduus pycnocephalus italian thistle carex barbarae santa barbara sedge carya illinoinensis pecan centaurea solstitialis yellow star. Managing canada thistle canada thistle cirsium arvense is a perennial that has plagued farmers in america since european settlement, and is a noxious weed in pennsylvania. Silybum marianum, a dicot, is an annual or perennial herb that is not native to california. Outlook\57iwx67z\noxious weed veg mgt plan 8182014.
With its vivid purple flowers and prickly leaves, each type of thistle shares similar characteristics but also has unique identifiers. Cal ipc website to report new areas of invasive plant growth or contact the local county. If not kept under control, thistle will quickly take over a landscape. Yellow starthistle, centaurea solstitialis, is native to eurasia and was introduced to california around 1850 via south america. Established populations of yellow star thistle are found in several dispersed locations including paramount ranch and upper las virgenes canyon. Only mature thistle plants may readily combust and. Cal ipc wants him to write an article for them, but he should write it for grasslands. Centaurea calcitrapa is a species of flowering plant known by several common names, including red star thistle and purple starthistle. Appendix e vegetation and wildlife technical appendix. Only mature thistle plants may readily combust and their seed may already be dispersed. Malta star thistle centaurea melitensis malta starthistle is a winter annual or biennial forb in the sunflower family. Noxious weed management and revegetation plan contents. Plants profile for centaurea solstitialis yellow starthistle.
All of these insects attack the seedhead of yellow starthistle, effectively limiting the number of seeds the plants are able to produce. This plant has caused serious problems in the northern half of the state. Consult the plants web site and your state department of natural resources for this plants current status e. The cal ipc inventory includes 208 weeds of varying degrees of invasiveness that are known to occur throughout california cal ipc, 2017. Department of agriculture examine the weed in placer county. The stems of mature plants are rigid, spreading, and typically branching from the base in open areas. Similar to the yellow star thistle centaurea solstitialis but there is a color differentiation on the flowers. Ackerson meadow, a new addition to the park, will be surveyed extensively for novel.
For example, yellow star thistle centaurea solstitialis is widespread across many portions of the project area. Beautify lunada bay project phase 1 february 2016 palos verdes peninsula land conservancy 916 silver spur road, suite 207. Centaurea solstitialis, a dicot, is an annual herb that is. Contact information to obtain copies of this report, contact the california invasive plant council through its website. Four species in the bsa are rated as high by cal ipc. Invasive plant species annual work plan, implementation of.
Yellow starthistle is the fastestmoving and mostwidespread invasive, nonnative plant in california history. Centaurea solstitialis, yellow star thistle, is a member of the family asteraceae, native to the mediterranean basin region. Yellow starthistle is an invasive, exotic, seedy herbaceous annual. Yellow starthistle centaurea solstitialis is one of the most serious rangeland, grassland, and wildland weeds in the northwestern united states, impacting native plant diversity, altering water cycles, and poisoning livestock. Yellow starthistle is a graygreen to bluegreen plant with a deep, vigorous taproot. Although inventories are more common and more accurate in the year 2000 than in 1988, 50% of these states reported only 50% accuracy, while 31% reported 51% to 75% accuracy, and 2 states reported 75% to 100% accuracy. Centaurea solstitialis profile california invasive plant. Cal ipc provides sciencebased tools and information to help land managers and others make the best choices for california. Weediness yellow starthistle is one of the more invasive. Recent reports indicate that yellow starthistle infests between 10 and 15 million acres in california. Bull thistle has recently been documented at elevations.
Some such as dandelion, bromes, thistles, mulleins, yellow starthistle, and tumbleweeds are well known from urban ruderal i. In dry years, adult plants may be a few inches tall, but following wet winters or in wetter sites, they can reach three feet tall. California invasive plant council cal ipc inventory. Ecology and management on pacific northwest rangelands yellow starthistle l. It produces bright, thistlelike yellow flowers with sharp spines surrounding the base. We monitored populations of yellow starthistle at three locations to provide baseline data in anticipation of making future releases of the rosette weevil, ceratapion basicorne. Starthistle starthistle starthistle california state parks. Yellow starthistle management guide provides a comprehensive overview of treatment methods for yellow starthistle, including each methods advantages and disadvantages, timing.
Invasive weed field guide santa monica mountains national recreation area u. Barnabys thistle or barnaby thistle the plant is a thorny winter annual species in the knapweed genus. Manual removal of yellow starthistle is most effective with small patches or in. Yellow starthistle centaurea solstitialis is one of the most serious rangeland. By submitting this form, you are consenting to receive marketing. Element stewarship abstract for centaurea solstitialis pdf. Time to plan your yellow starthistle weed attack uc weed. Canada thistle is a statelisted noxious weed in california and many other states.
He has seen yellow star thistle decrease on his property in response to grazing management. In its present dry and spiny stage, pulling the weeds can inflict pain, so be sure to wear gloves. Yellow starthistle ecology and management on pacific. According to some taxonomists, four varieties or biotypes exist that differ in growth habit, leaf characteristics, seed germination, and development. Malta starthistle is a simple to bushy winter annual with spiny yellowflowered. It infests rangelands, pastures, hay fields, orchards, vineyards, waterways, roadsides, and even forests and other noncrop areas. Year species treated cal ipc rating cdfa rated alert.
Centaurea solstitialis, yellow starthistle, is a member of the family asteraceae, native to the. Join us for a new series of training sessions for volunteers in invasive plant management. Widely scattered satellite populations can produce enormous amounts of seed, which either fall to the ground or can be dispersed to produce yet another population. Centaurea solstitialis, yellow starthistle, is a member of the family asteraceae, native to the mediterranean basin region.
Canada thistle inhabits agricultural land and other disturbed locations. Otto, ucce master gardener in the california foothills, yellow starthistle is perhaps the most common and concerning invasive plant. California invasive plant council through its website, edited by doug. Doublebag the plants and burn them later in the fall. It has a long taproot and stiff, upright stems that branch from the base.
Yellow starthistle grows to heights varying from 6 inches to 5 feet. Yellow starthistle is the most widespread broadleaf invasive plant in the western united states, and it is particularly prevalent in california. It is impacting much of our open space, agricultural and rangelands as well as. Centaurea solstitialis yellow star thistle conium maculatum poison hemlock. Yellow star thistle prefers drier, welldrained upland soils. There is a fairly new herbicide 2009 on the market from monterey chemical called star thistle killer. A cnps chapter model for early detection and effective. Description yellow starthistle, centaurea solstitialis, is a pubescent winter annual, germinating in the fall and overwintering as a rosette. Successful control of yellow starthistle will not only require understanding of the. Yellow starthistle centaurus solstilatus description 26 ft. A cnps chapter model for early detection and effective response to emergent invasive weeds. Plant assessment form information gathered by cal ipc on the impacts, rate of spread, and distribution of invasive plants in california. Implementation of invasive species plan recommendations. Control of yellow starthistle centaurea solstitialis and.
Plants form a basal rosette of leaves until midspring. The first step in an ivm program is to gather information on the life cycle and habits of the noxious weed. In california, yellow starthistle was dispersed into agricultural fields, and. It is unclear whether fire will completely kill bull thistle. Yellow starthistle management guide california invasive.
That said, yellow starthistle can be handpulled at any time in its lifespan. After several years of treatment, yellow star thistle density has undergone drastic. Yellow starthistle is a simple to bushy winter annual, occasionally biennial, with spiny yellowflowered heads and stiff wiry stems to 6 ft tall. Seed was introduced to california in the mid 1850s as a contaminant in alfalfa seed.
Yellow starthistle invades 12 million acres in california alone. This appendix is specifically for the san francisco bay region and should be updated as information becomes available. Cal ipc categorizes invasive plants as high, moderate, or limited based on factors. Barnabys thistle, golden starthistle, yellow cockspur, and cottontip thistle scientific name. Richard thinks that cal ipc are too focused on killing invasives. Other knapweeds and starthistles including the similarly yellow flowered starthistles c. Newtown road bridge 25c0033 at south fork weber creek. Sep 21, 2017 different types of thistle such as bull thistle, canada thistle, yellow star thistle, musk thistle and italian thistle are collectively called star thistle. Edited by doug johnson and elizabeth brusati, cal ipc. Prior to the registration of aminopyralid in 2005, the standard for chemical control of yellow starthistle was the herbicide clopyralid. The yellow starthistle bud weevil, bangasternus orientalis, larvae feed within seedheads and reduce seed production. A weed report from the book weed control in natural areas in the western united states bull thistle.
Noxious weed management and revegetation plan lassen lodge hydroelectric project, ferc no. It is poor forage for all livestock and causes chewing disease, a nervous disorder, in horses. Invasive weed risk assessment sierra national forest french fire recovery and reforestation project july 2015. Coastal bush lupine, yellow bush lupine cal ipc limited lupinus bicolor annual lupine, bicolored lupine. The yellow starthistle peacock fly, chaetorellia australis, larvae feed within seedheads. Thistle is the old english name essentially the same in all kindred languages for a large family of plants occurring chiefly in europe and asia, of which we have fourteen species in great britain, arranged under the botanical groups carduus, carlina, onopordon and carbenia, or. These fastgrowing, noxious pests are found in many lawns and gardens all over the united states, spreading quickly to cover an entire area with their thick growth. California invasive plant council protecting california.
It is native to europe but is rarely found there, it is known across the globe as an introduced species and often a noxious weed. Yet, 63 percent of the species on the invasive plant list. Initially a weed of agricultural systems and roadsides, yellow starthistle began to spread to rangelands across northwestern states during the 1870s and 1880s. Dale woods of the california department of food and agriculture and bill bruckart of the u. Cal ipc rates bull thistle as having moderate ecological impact statewide, but notes that this species can be very problematic regionally, and especially in riparian areas such as meadows and streamsides cal ipc, 2006. Biology and biological control of yellow starthistle usda forest. Sign up to receive information about cal ipc s upcoming events and project updates. Annual ipm report integrated pest management program goal. It is now common in open areas on roadsides, rangeland, wildlands, hay fields, pastures, and waste areas.21 964 109 548 1110 1006 1008 776 1478 548 442 291 132 1445 848 1215 1510 1421 1389 156 1368 948 368 536 1194 1434 77 941 789 787 148 1149 710 983 1207 1277 1220 867 190 210 642 949 250